The life in the soil is made up of the tropic organisms that enable all life on earth to exist.
Credit Dr. Elaine Ingham
As these organisms eat, grow and move through the soil, they make it possible to have clean water, clean air, healthy plants and moderated water flow.
So all those microscopic decompose organic compounds including manure, plant residues, pesticides and other pollutants including fertilizers, they prevent toxins entering water and becoming harmful pollutants. Bacteria and fungi like nitrates and other nutrients that might otherwise enter groundwater and they fix nitrogen from the air, while fungi suck the nitrogen out of nematodes and micro-arthropods in order to make it available to the plants in exchange for carbon, the building blocks of life. Many organisms enhance soil aggregation and porosity, thus run off becomes less of a problem. Soil organisms prey on crop pests and are food for high tropic animals above ground. Without them the circular economy does not exist.
So lets get to know it.
Bacteria:- are tiny, one celled organisms, generally 4/100,000 of an inch wide we like to say (1µm) and somewhat longer in length, what bacteria lack in size they make up in numbers. One teaspoon contains between 100 million and 1 billion bacteria equivalent to a hippopotamus and acre.
Bacteria fall into four groups.
Decomposers:- brake down pesticides and pollutants in soil.
Mutualists:- who form partnerships with plants
Pathogens:- Agrobacterium cause gall formations on plants. Xymomonas and Erwina species are not nice.
NitrifyingBacteria Lithotrophs or chemoeautrophs obtain energy from compounds of nitrogen, sulfur, iron and hydrogen instead of carbon, and are important in obtaining nitroegen from the atmosphere so fertilizers aren't needed.